In this chapter we will be study about RBSE class 10th chapter 5 _ Democratic, notes and Questions answers Based on new syllabus
RBSE Class 10th SST Chapter 5 Democracy Notes

RBSE Class 10th SST Chapter 5 Democracy Notes Based on new syllabus

Meaning of Democracy:

a system in which the government of a country is elected by the people

Various forms of Democracy

Main forms and associated concepts of democracy are accepted in following forms in the modern times: Political Democracy, Social Democracy, Economic Democracy and Moral Democracy.

Political Democracy

Liberal thinkers have proposed two types of political democracy:
(a) one type of democracy in the state, and
(b) another type of democracy in governance.
The type of political democracy in a state means the democratic state.
The type of political democracy in governance means a democratic government.
Democratic state and democratic government, i.e. complete political democracy has certain fundamental concepts; like:
Political democracy believes in liberal constitutionalism.
It considers the power to be inherent in people.
Democratic state is the theoretic facet of political democracy and its practical facet is democratic government.
People elect the government, controls the government and can remove the government.
Political democracy is not the objective but a means to attain democratic objectives and values.

Social Democracy

Social democracy is a form of democracy in society. In practice, two things are necessary for establishing social democracy
Privilege on the basis of religion, caste, race, language, gender, prosperity, etc. should be abolished.
Each citizen should be given equal opportunity of social progress.

Economic Democracy:

The form of democracy in economy is called economic democracy.
The Marxists and socialists have proposed the theory of economic democracy in modern times.

Moral Democracy:

Some thinkers have accepted the democracy in the form of moral and spiritual philosophy of life.
This moral perspective of democracy is called moral democracy.
Various Theories and Concepts of Democracy
Various theories and concepts of democracy are as follows
  • Traditional liberal theory and concept of democracy
  • Pluralist theory and concept of democracy
  • Elitist theory and concept of democracy
  • Marxist theory and concept of democracy
  • Socialist theory and concept of democracy
  • The Traditional Liberal Theory and Concept of Democracy
The fundamental beliefs and traits of the traditional liberal theory of democracy are as follows
A man is an intelligent animal and has the power to understand his interests and risks.
All people are basically same.
Government should be formed on the basis of democratic constitutionalism, i.e. theory of limited governance should be followed.
‘People’s desire’ is the basis of the power of government hence government is just a trustee of political power.
People should be given individual freedoms and rights and independent and impartial judiciary should be constituted to protect these rights.
Free and fair polls should be conducted at fixed intervals and there should be more than one political party,
Government should respect the mandate of people.

The Pluralist Theory and Concept of Democracy
The pluralistic belief is at the root of the pluralistic theory and concept of democracy. This belief system has faith in federal form of society.
According to Robert Pristhus, “The pluralistic theory of democracy is a sociopolitical system in which many people’s groups and interest groups have stake in the power of state.”

The Elitist Theory and Concept of Democracy:
The center of this theory of democracy is the elite class.

The Marxist Theory and Concept of Democracy:

The Marxist theory of democracy presents a special form of democracy, which is a type of economic democracy in soul.

The Socialist Theory and Concept of Democracy:

The socialist theory of democracy is a combination of liberal theory and Marxist theory of democracy.
It aims to achieve the political freedom of individual; as enshrined in political democracy, and the economic equality; as enshrined in Marxist democracy.

Kinds of Democratic Government

There are two types of liberal democracy and government systems related to it;
(a) Direct or Pure Democracy and
(b) Indirect or Representative Democracy.

Direct Democracy:

Under direct democracy, people directly utilize the power of the state.
Public takes policy decisions, makes laws and appoints administrative officers.
Direct democratic government is only possible in very small units with small population.

Indirect Democracy:

Indirect democracy is present in almost every democratic state of modern times.
Under this system, public does not use the power directly, rather does so through elected representatives.

Main Features of Democracy

People’s government:

As a system of governance, democracy is the government of all people.

Government by people:

Government is formed by people; in a democracy. In this system, people elect their representatives and the representatives form the government.

Democratic government is a means and not an objective:

In democracy, governance is never considered as an objective rather as a means.

Government answerable to people:

The democratic government accepts the theory of ‘power of people’. Hence, a democratic government is answerable to people for its works.

Democracy is an evolving government:

The democratic system has went through many stages of development. Initially, it was individualistic democracy, which gradually changed to liberal democracy.
Now-a-days, it has evolved towards the concept of public welfare state.

Critical Examination of Democracy

Merits of Democracy

Following are the key merits of democracy
  • Growth in public welfare
  • Efficient government
  • Means of public education
  • Means of moral education
  • Education on patriotism
  • Protection from revolution
  • Government based on equality and freedom
  • Establishment of independent and impartial judiciary
  • Helps in progress of art, literature, culture and science
  • Faith in constitution
  • Powerful government
  • Supporter of World Peace

Demerits of Democracy

Following are the demerits of democracy:
  • Wrong notion about individuals in democracy
  • Rule of Incapability
  • Claims of educational importance are misleading
  • Concept of democratic freedom and equality is misleading
  • Effects of Political Parties
  • Irresponsible Government
  • Wastage of public money and time
  • Encouragement of corruption
  • Decline of art, literature and culture
  • Tyranny of Majority
  • Disinterested Voters
  • Weak government in case of danger
  • Democracy doesn’t support world peace
  • Essential Conditions for the Success of Democracy
  • Any system of government can work successfully only in favourable conditions and if the conditions are unfavorable then it declines.
  • The same is also true for a democratic government system

The following conditions can be helpful in successful working of a democracy-

Peace and system

The internal condition of the country should be normal and the fear of war and external invention should not exist.

Strong national economy

It is essential for the success of democracy that the national economy is sufficient and strong enough. If a nation's economy is suffering from industrial crisis than the entire national economy get disturb.

Establishment of economic equality

For successful running of democracy only a strong economy is not sufficient along with this it is also important that the the wealthy and educated have the same standing as the poor and less educated.

Establishment of social Justice

It is essential for the success of democracy that no discrimination should be made with an individual on the basis of religion, caste, language, colour etc.

Freedom to the citizens

The constitution should provide fundamental right to the citizen and arrangement should also be made for the protection of the rights. The citizen should get freedom of expressing their opinion, form of opinion, organised meetings and perform peacefully protest.