NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India talks about how Congress sought to develop the national movement, how different social groups participated in the movement, and how nationalism captured the imagination of people. In 1919, the First World War broke out in Europe, which had far-reaching consequences in the entire world. This war ignited the fight for India’s Independence. It ignited the spirit of nationalism in India due to the emergence of the Satyagraha and the Non-Cooperation Movement. Solving the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 will ensure a better grasp of this chapter.

Experts at NCERT live have created the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History following the latest CBSE guidelines. It’s recommended that students refer to these NCERT Solutions regularly to make their concepts stronger, which in turn will help to fetch good marks

Class 10 History Chapter 2 NCERT Solutions 

NCERT Solutions

Q.1. Explain: (Write in Brief)
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
1918-19 and 1920-21, which resulted in severe food shortage. "a nation state is a sovereign state of which most of its subjects are united also by factors which defined a nation such as language or common descent." It is a more precise concept than "country", since a country does not need to have a predominant ethnic group.

(c) Why were Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919 by the imperial legislative.
(1) This had unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspect without trial for two years maximum.
(ii) This had enabled the Government to suspend the right to 'Habeas Corpus' (a writ requiring a person to be brought before a judge or court), which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain
(iii) It caused a wave of anger among all sections and societies of India. It led to the first country wide agitation by M:K Gandhi and marked the foundation of the Non-cooperation movement.

(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Ans. (i) In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent at many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
(ii) Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic.

Q. 2. What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
Ans. The idea of Satyagraha mainly implies a unique method of mass agitation that highlights the powers of truth, and the need to search for truth. It focuses on non-violence and emphasis that if the cause is true and the fight is against injustice then there is no need for coercion. Gandhiji believed in the institution of dharma - non-violence and that it could led to national unity and harmony.

Q. 3. Write a newspaper report on :
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Ans. On Baisakhi day, a large crowd of people, mostly from neighbouring villages, unaware of the prohibitory orders in the city, had gathered in this small park to protest against the arrest of their leaders, Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. The army surrounded the gathering under order from General Dyer and blocked the only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing around 1000. The incident was followed by uncivilised brutalities on the inhabitants of Amritsar. The entire nation was stunned. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest. Gandhi was overwhelmed by the total atmosphere of violence and withdrew the movement in April 1919.

(b) The Simon Commission
Ans. There was a chorus of protest by all Indians against the appointment of an all-white, seven member Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon) in November 1927. The Commission was to recommend to the Government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms and on what lines. Set up in response to the nationalist movement, the commission was to look into functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. But as reported the commission did not have a single Indian member. The Indian response was against the commission and the basic notion behind the exclusion that foreigners would discuss and decide upon India's fitness for self government. This notion was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination, and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of Indians. The Commission landed in Bombay in February, 1928. On that day, a countrywide strike was organised and mass rallies were held. Wherever the commission went, there were black flag demonstrations, hartal and slogans of 'Simon go back'.

Q.4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in chapter 1.
Ans. Abindranath's Image of Bharat Mata shows her as imparting learning, food and clothing. A mala 10 wom by ner, which shows aesthetic quality. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism. One can say, it is similar to the image of Germania painted by Philip vent, where she is holding a sword, but also looks more feminine. Whereas the other painting of Bharat Mata shows her more masculine in nature as it shows power and authority which is denoted by lion and elephant beside her in the painting. The latter image is more parallel to the image of Germania by Lorenz Clasen, where she holds a sword and a shield, and seems ready for a fight. In France she was Christened Marianne, a popular Christian name which underlined the idea of a people's nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic -the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Status of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity. Similarly Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In a visual representations Germania wears a crown of Oak leaves, as the German Oakstands for heroism.

Q. 5. List all the different social groups which joined the non-cooperation movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Ans. The different social groups that joined the Non-cooperation Movements of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, teachers and headmasters, students, peasants, tribals and workers. Peasants, Tribal and workers joined the movement from the countryside. They did so with hopes of self-emancipation. Peasants rebelled against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents and had to do begar or free labour.
Tribal peasants - They revolted against the enclosure of large forest tracts by the British government, which left them devoid of a livelihood as well as traditional rights.
Planation workers - They desired freedom to move about and retain links with the villages they came from . All three believed that Gandhi Raj would come with the Non-Cooperation Movement, and this would mark an end to their sorrows. Hence, they joined the anti-colonial struggle.

Q. 6. Discuss the salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism. ?
Ans. Gandhi on January 31, 1930 sent a letter to the Viceroy Irwin, consisting 11 most essential demands. Some of these were of general interest while others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within the Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign. But the most unusual of the demand was the abolishment of salt tax. The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because it was done in revolt against a commodity-salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production was a severely oppressive administrative move. Gandhi's letter was an ultimatum. According to which if the demands were not fulfilled by 11th March, the congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhi stated his famous salt march accompanied by 79 of his trusted volunteere The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhi's ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coasta Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufactured salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q.7. Imagine you are a woman participating in the civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Ans. I participated in the National Movement for the first time by being a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It was feeling of pride for me. During Gandhi's 'Salt March', I participated with thousands of women who came out of their homes to listen to n who came out of their homes to listen to him. We also participated in manufacturing salt, protest marches, picketed foreign goods and liquor Shop who came from the high caste families also joined in the protests in the urbana part in the movements with great enthusiasm. We all stood by men and surrere with them. Even though it did not bring us any status in the movements but we all com the struggle of freedom for our motherland. Even in Gandhi's views a women's place was a no as mothers, and good wives. The Congress also on the other hand did not give us any post the organisation but we with all made our presence felt by our hard work and enthusiasm were many famous personalities amongst us like Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Nehru, Annie beds who contributed to the national movements.

Q. 8. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Ans. The political leaders represented the different classes and communities of the Indian society. The question they mainly differed on was of separate electorate because of the difference in opinions. The main purpose to secure separate electorates for them was for by showing favours to their followers by reserving separate electoral seats for them. But Congress Party, especially Gandhi had an opinion that having a separate electoral would slow down the freedom movement and also adversely affect the unity of the country. His main fear was that the system of separate electorates would give a push to communalism and divide the country into pieces.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS  (1 mark)
Q. 1. Who financed the defence expenditure of World War I?
Ans. War was financed by war loans and increasing taxes; customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced

Q. 2. Why were people in rural areas angry with Britishers?
Ans. There was forced recruitment of soldiers in rural areas. Crops failed resulting in acute storage of food, accompanied by influenza epidemic.

Q. 3. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. He had come back from South Africa.

Q. 4. Explain the 'Idea of Satyagraha'.
Ans. The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.

Q.5. How can battles be fought with Satyagraha?
Ans. Idea of Satyagraha suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without being aggressive, battle could be won.

Q. 6. What was 'Champaran Movement'?
Ans. It was the first satyagrahi movement that took place in 1916, in which Mahatma Gandhi travelled to Champaran to inspire the indigo planters to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

Q. 7. Why did Kheda farmers protest against Britishers?
Ans. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue
and demanded that revenue collection be released.

Q. 8. What was Rowlatt Act of 1919?
Ans. It gave the British government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Q.9. What was Mahatma Gandhi's reaction on 'Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6th April.

Q. 10. How did people react to Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British started arresting the nationalists,

Q. 11. Why was Martial Law imposed in Amritsar?
Ans. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so Martial Law was imposed.

Q. 12. Why did General Dyer fire on innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?
Ans. His object was, as he declared, was to produce a moral effect' and to create in the minds of Satyagrahi's feeling of terror and awe.

Q. 13. What did British do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahis?
Ans. Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do Salam to all Sahibs. People were flogged and villages were bombed.

Q. 14. Why did Mahatma Gandhi join Khilafat issue?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together. One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.

Q. 15. Explain the Khilafat Movement.
Ans. Turkey was defeated in World War I and there were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman Emperor-the spiritual head of the Islamic world. To defend the Khalifa's temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay.

Q. 16. Who were the two main leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
Ans. Two young brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started Khilafat Movement.

Q. 17. What resolution was passed at Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920?
Ans. At the Calcutta session of the congress in September 1920, Gandhiji convinced other leaders of the need to start a Non-cooperation Movement in support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj.

Q. 18. Name the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. Famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi is 'Hind Swaraj'.

Q.19. Why many Congress leaders were reluctant to boycott council elections?
Ans. They were reluctant to boycott council elections scheduled for November 1920, as they feared that if they would join Non-cooperation Movement, it might lead to popular violence.

Q. 20. What decision was made in Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920?
Ans. At congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non cooperation Movement was adopted.

Q.21. Why were Council elections not boycotted in Madras?
Ans. The Council Elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the justice party the party of non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power something that usually only Brahmans had access to

Q. 22. What was the impact of reduction of imports?
Ans. As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

23. Why did people start buying mill cloth instead of Khadi?
Ans. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not
afford to buy it.

Q.24. Why did boycott of British Institutions pose a problem?
Ans. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian Institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. But these were slow to come up and teachers and the students started trickling back to government schools.

Q.25. Why did Awadh Movement of Peasants begin?
Ans. The movement was against talukdars and landlords, who demanded from peasants exorbitant rents and a variety of other taxes. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment. 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (3 marks)

Q. 1. What was the Khilafat Movement?
Ans. (i) It was a movement started by the Ali brothers, Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.
(ii) It was started to show their allegiance to the spiritual head of the Ottoman Empire, Khalifa.
(iii) To save Khalifa, who was deposed by the British after the World War I, a Khilafat Committee was formed in India.

Q.2. Why did Mahatma Gandhi send eleven demands in his letter to Lord Irwin?
OR
What were the main demands of the 11 demands of Mahatma Gandhi to Viceroy Irwin?
Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the country.
(ii) Some of his demands were of general interest, others were specific demands of different classes.
(iii) The idea was to make the demands wide ranging, so that all classes within the Indian society could identify with them and could be united in a united campaign.

Q. 3. How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-cooperation Movement?
Ans. (i) People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
(ii) Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay land revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned and in many places forest people violated forest laws by entering into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.

Q. 4. How did the Muslims respond to the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. (i) Muslim response was lukewarm to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) After the Non-cooperation-Khilafat Movement declined, relations between the Hindus and Muslims worsened as each community organised religious processions, provoking Hindu Muslim communal clashes and riots.
(iii) The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.
(iv) When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities.

Q.5. Which three early satyagrahi movements were organised by Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans. (i) Champaran Movement (1916) in Bihar: To inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(ii) Kheda Movement (1917): To support the peasants of Kheda district of Gujarat, who could not pay the revenue due to crop failure and plague epidemic.
(iii) Movement in Ahmedabad (1918): To organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers against British atrocities.

Q.6. Give a brief description of the Rowlatt Satyagraha.
Ans. (i) Rallies were organised, workers went on strike and shops closed down.
(ii) British administration clamped down on nationalists. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
(iii) Police firing on a peaceful procession at Amritsar provoked widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.

Q. 7. How did Indians participate in the Non-cooperation Movement?
Ans. (i) They surrendered the titles awarded to them by the British government.
(ii) They boycotted civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
(iii) Gandhiji felt that British were running their government with Indian cooperation only and if Indians had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have been collapsed.

Q. 8. Who was Baba Ramchandra?
Ans. (i) Baba Ramchandra led the peasant movement in Awadh.
(ii) He was a sanyasi, who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer.
(iii) He started the movement against talukdars and landlords, who demanded high rent and taxes from the peasants.

Q. 9. What were the conditions of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact?
Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi signed the pact with Lord Irwin on 5th March, 1931.
(ii) Gandhiji agreed to participate in a Round Table Conference in England.
(iii) Government agreed to release all the political prisoners.

Q. 10. Why did the rich peasants refuse to participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, wheit was restarted in 1932?
Ans. (i) For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenue.
(ii) But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised.
(iii) So when the movement was restarted in 1932, they refused to participate, as their wishes were not fulfilled.

Q. 11. Which ideas of the Gandhian Programme were adopted by the industrial working class?
Ans. (i) Boycott of foreign goods
(ii) Movement against low wages
(iii) Movement against poor working conditions of the workers.

Q. 12. How did B.R. Ambedkar lift the Dalits and take their cause to the British parliament?
Ans. (i) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organised Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
(ii) He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for the dalits.
(iii) Dalits began organising themselves, demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate which they could get only when they were politically empowered and for that Dr. Ambedkar fully supported them.

Q. 13. "The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.
Ans. (i) The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region.
(ii) As the industrialists came closer to the congress, workers stayed aloof
(iii) But inspite of that, some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, selectively adopting some ideas of the Gandhian programme. But the congress was reluctant to include workers' demand as part of its programme of struggle.
(iv) It felt that this would alleviate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.

Q. 14. Which two factors shaped Indian politics by the late 1920s?
Ans. (i) The first was the effect of worldwide economic depression.
(ii) Agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.

Q. 15. Why was the offer of dominion status by Lord Irwin rejected by Indian National Congress?
Ans. In an effort to win them over, the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a round table conference to discuss a future constitution. This did not satisfy the Congress leaders. The radicals within the Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose, became more assertive. The liberals and moderates, who were proposing a constitutional system within the framework of British dominion, gradually lost their influence.

Q. 16. What were Mahatma Gandhi's views on women's participation in the national movements?
OR
How did large-scale participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement become an important feature?
Ans. During Gandhiji's salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. But Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and health, be good mothers and good wives. For a long time, the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority
within the organisation.

Q. 17. Why was Poona Pact signed?
Ans. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was demanding separate electorates for dalits. Mahatma Gandhi believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji's position and the result was Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by general electorate.

Q. 18. “When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities.” Why was it so?
OR
Why Muslims did not willingly participate in CDM?

Ans. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

Q. 19. “Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore"Elaborate.
Ans. In the late 19th century, Indian nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one's national identity and restore a sense of pride
in one's past.

Q. 20. What do you know about Natesa Sastri?
Ans. Many people were collecting ballads, folk tales and myths, etc. to revive Indian folklore. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India. He believed that folklore was national literature; it was the most trustworthy manifestation of people's real thoughts and characteristics'.

Q. 21. How Mahatma Gandhi uplifted untouchables?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi called the untouchables, 'Harijans' or the children of God, organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools. He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the sweepers (bhangi) and persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the sin of 'untouchability'.

Q. 22. How did the salt Satyagraha become an effective tool of resistance against British colonialism in India during 1930? Explain. [CBSE Sample Question 2017]
Ans. Salt satyagraha
(i) Mahatma Gandhi believed that salt could be a powerful symbol to unite the whole nation.
Poor peasants - against high revenue demand, trade depression, remittance of rent.
(ii) Rich peasants-high revenue, wanted revision in the revenue demands. (iii) Industrialist -wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio, formed FICCI
(iv) Workers-against poor working conditions and low wages.
(v) Women-service to the nation as the sacred duty.
(vi) Salt was made was an act of civil disobedience.
(vii) Workers went on strike in railway workshops shops closed down. (viii) Local leaders were arrested.

Q. 23. Discuss various stages of the Non Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi. [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
Ans. Gandhi ji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:
1st Stage: Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
2nd Stage: Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
3rd Stage: Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Q. 24. Who had designed the 'swaraj flag' by 1921? Explain the main features of this 'swaraj flag.'[CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Mahatma Gandhiji designed the “Swaraj Flag” by 1921 Features:
(i) It had tricolours - Red, Green and White
(ii) It had a spinning wheel in the center.
(iii) It represents the Gandhian idea of self-help.
(iv) It had become a symbol of defiance.

Q.25. "The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement." Support the statement with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
(ii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iv) Foreign cloth burnt in huge.
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade on foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
(vi) Students left the government owned schools and college.
(vii) Lawyers gave up legal practices.

Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) People were asked to break colonial laws.
(ii) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
(iv) Village officials resigned from their jobs.
(v) Forest people violated forest rules and laws.

Q. 26. Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Different social groups in The Civil Disobedience Movement
(i) Rich Peasantry Group-the patidar and jats demanded reduction in revenue and participated in the boycott program.
(ii) Poor Peasantry Group-they wanted unpaid rent to be remitted , joined radical movement led by the socialist and communist.
(iii) Business Class Group-prominent industrialist like Purushottam Das, G.D. Birla formed FICCI wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and rupee sterling exchange ratio and refused to sell imported goods.
(iv) Working Class Group-Nagpur Workers adopted boycott of foreign goods, against low wages and poor working conditions.
(v) Women-participate in the protest marches, manufacturing of salt and boycotted foreign goods.

Q. 27. What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement in Bengal? Explain its main features. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal the flag designed was Tricolour flag. The two features of the flag were:
(i) The colour of the flag was – Red, Green and Yellow.
(ii) It had eight where representing eight provinces in British India.
(iii) It had crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.

Q. 28. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments.[CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and notion of Swaraj.
(i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to more freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
(ii) Swaraj meant relating a link with the village from which they had come.
(iii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.
(iv) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation movement thousands of workers defined the authorities, left planations and needed home.
(v) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS (5 marks)

Q. 1. Briefly explain the incident of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and its effects on Punjab.
Ans. (i) On 13th April 1919, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
(ii) On that day, a crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh.
(iii) Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.
(iv) General Dyer entered the area, blocked the only exit point, and opened fire on the crowd, killing and wounding hundreds of people.
(V) His objective was to 'produce a moral effect to create in the minds of satyagrahis, a feeling of terror and awe. As the news spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes, clashes with police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression. Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.

Q. 2. "British rule in India would have been collapsed if Indians had not cooperated.” How did this statement help in starting a mass movement in India against the British rule?
OR
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think of Non-cooperation only ?
Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and if they had refused to cooperate, British rule in India would have been collapsed
within a year.
(ii) He proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iii) It should begin with the surrendering of titles that the government had awarded to the Indians.
(iv) boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative assemblies, schools and foreign goods would show their non-cooperation to the British Empire. Mahatma Gandhi felt that in case the government used suppression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Q. 3. What action did the British government take after the famous Dandi March?
OR
What kind of repressive action was taken by British on the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. (i) Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent clashes in many places.
(iii) A month later when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations-all structures that symbolised British rule.
(iv) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal suppression.
(v) Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 1,00,000 people were arrested.

Q.4. Differentiate between the reasons for the participation of the rich peasants and the poor peasants in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. (i) Rich peasants were hit hard by the trade depression and falling prices, whereas the poor peasants' cash income dwindled and they could not pay their rents.
(ii) Refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment among the rich peasants, whereas the poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted.
(iii) For the rich peasants, fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues and for the poor peasants, their ‘no rent' campaign.
(iv) Rich peasants were disappointed since revenue was not reduced and the poor peasants were
disappointed with the Congress as it was unwilling to support them.

Q.5. How did large-scale participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement become an important feature?
Ans. (i) During Gandhi's salt march, thousands of women came out from their homes to listen to him.
(ii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
(iii) Many went to jail in urban areas.
(iv) They considered service to the nation as a sacred duty of women. Yet, increased public role did not necessarily mean any radical change in the way the position of women was visualised. And for a long time, the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.

Q.6. Did the dalits participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
OR
Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932 in the light of differences between Gandhiji and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Ans. (1) Initially, Congress had ignored the dalits for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus.
(ii) But Mahatma Gandhi believed that swaraj would not come even after a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
(iii) He called them ‘Harijans' and he himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of sweepers.
(iv) But many dalit leaders demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate.
(v) So dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited.

Q. 7. What do you mean by sense of collective belongingness and how was it practised in India by the Indians?
OR
"Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation." Support the statement.[CBSE, 2015]
Ans. It means that people began to believe that they were all a part of the same nation and discovered some unity, which bound them together.

(i) Main cultural processes:
Figures or images helped create an image with which people could identify the nation. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism.
(a) It was with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India was associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
(b) This image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote the song 'Vande Mataram' in his novel Anandamath.
(c) Then Rabindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata. He was moved by the Swadeshi movement.
(d) In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed divine and spiritual.
(e) In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms as it circulated in popular prints and was painted by different artists.
(f) Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism.
(ii) Indian folklore:
(a) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
(b) Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages, to give a true picture of the traditional culture, which was corrupted and damaged by outside forces.
(c) In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths to revive the folk culture. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India.

(iii) Icons and symbols (flag)
(a) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
(b) It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British
India and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
(c) By 1921, Mahatma Gandhi designed the swaraj flag.
(d) It was also again a tricolour (red, green, white) flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(e) Carrying the flag holding it aloft during marches became a symbol of defiance.

(iv) Reinterpretation of history
(a) The British saw Indians as backward, primitive and incapable of governing themselves.
(b) In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India's great achievement.
(c) They wrote about glorious developments in ancient India in arts and architecture, science and maths, religion and culture, law and philosophy, etc.
(d) This glorious time was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.

Q. 8. What were the reasons for the gradual slowing down of the Non-cooperation Movement in the cities?
Ans. (i) Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the cloth produced in mills. Poor people could not afford to buy khadi cloth.
(ii) Boycott of British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative Indian institutions.
(iii) So students and teachers began trickling back to the government schools.
(iv) Even lawyers resumed work in the government courts.

Q. 9. What do you know about the peasant movement in Awadh?
Ans. (i) In Awadh, the peasant movement was led by Baba Ramchandra-a sanyasi who had earlier worked in Fiji as an indentured labourer.
(ii) The movement here was against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents from the peasants.
(iii) Peasants had to do begar at landlords' farms.
(iv) The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
(v) In many places nai-dhobi bandhs were organised to deprive landlords of the services of even washermen and barbers.
(vi) Jawaharlal Nehru began talking to the villagers and formed Oudh Kisan Sabha.
(vii) Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the villages around the region.
(viii) As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

Q. 10. What were the causes for launching Khilafat Movement in India?
Ans.(i) The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
(ii) There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor-the spiritual head of the Islamic world the Khalifa.
(iii) To defend the Khalifa's temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
(iv) A young generation of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue.
(v) Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified movement called “Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement'.

Q. 11. What were the effects of Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front?
Ans. (i) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire.
(ii) The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from 102 crore to 57 crore.
(iii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade. (iv) As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q. 12. How did business classes of India relate to Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and became powerful. Keen on expanding their business, they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign good, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports. The industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

Q. 13. How did the industrial working classes participate in Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM)?
Ans. (i) The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) in large numbers as the industrialists came closer to the Congress, workers stayed aloof.
(ii) But in spite of that, some workers did participate in the CDM selectively adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movement against low wages and poor working conditions.
(iii) There were strikes by railway workers and dock workers in 1930 and 1932 respectively.
(iv) In 1930, thousands of people wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.

Q. 14. Why did the Muslims feel alienated from Congress during the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans. (i) Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) After the decline of the Non-cooperation and Khilafat Movements, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress.
(ii) The important differences were over the question of representation in the future assemblies that were to be elected.
(iv) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, one of the leaders of the Muslim League, was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces.
(v) Negotiations over the questions of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts for compromise.

Q.15. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging? [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
Ans. (i)This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among people against the colonial government.
(ii)But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people's imagination:           (a)The identity of the nation symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings, etc.
(b) Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
(c) Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism,
(d) Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.

Q.16. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? How was it organised? Explain. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Satyagrah against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919:
(i) The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.
(ii) Indian members unitedly opposed it.
(iii) It gave government enormous powers to repress political activities. (iv) It allowed detention of political prisoners without trials for two years.

Organization of Satyagrah:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
(ii) It was started with a 'Hartal on 6th April.
(iii) Rallies were organized in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(v) Shops closed down.

Q. 17. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt' a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi found ‘salt a powerful symbol: Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands on 31st January 1930. The most stirring of all was to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the most essential items of food. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhiji started famous salt march. The march was over 240 miles, from Sabarmati to Dandi. Thousands came to hear Gandhiji wherever he stopped. He urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6th April he reached Dandi and violated the law.

Q. 18. How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.[CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Role of cultural processes in making of nationalism in India:
(i) The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
(ii) There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured peoples' imagination.
(iii) History, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols played a part in the making of nationalism.
(iv) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or an image.
(v) This helped to create an image with which people can identify the nation.

Q.19. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off civil Disobedience Movement because:
(1) Worried by the development of civil Disobedience movement the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent claster in many places.
(ii) When Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, a devoted disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930) angry crowds demonstrated in the street of Peshawar, facing armored cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(iv) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police force municipal building, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolised British rule.
(v) A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
(vi) The peaceful satyagrahi were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested. Under these circumstances Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q. 20. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:
(i) In December 1931 Gandhiji went to London for the Round table conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
(ii) In India he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawahar Lal Nehru were both in jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(V) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.

Q. 21. How had Non-cooperation Movement spread in cities? Explain. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Non-cooperation movement in cities:
(i) The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. (ii) Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(iii) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
(iv) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(vi) As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q.22. How did the 'First World War' create a new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. First world war create new economic and political situation in India
(i) It led to huge increases in defense expenditure Which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
(ii) Custom duties were raised
(iii) Income tax introduced.
(iv) Through the war years prices increased doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
(v) Villages were called upon to supply soldiers.
(vi) Forced recruitment in rural areas caused wide spread anger.
(vii) Crops forted in many parts of India resulting in acute shortage of food. This was accompanied by influenced evidences.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)

Q.1. Mention any three main proposals with reference to Non cooperation movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. Three main proposals with reference to NCM as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi were following:
(1) It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded.
(ii) He also proposed boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils schools and foreign goods.
(iii) Then in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. Finally at the congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, the Non cooperation programme was
adopted.

Q.2. Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31st January, 1930? Why was abolition of 'Salt tax' most stirring demand?
Ans. (i) On 31st January, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
(ii) Some of these were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes, from Industrialist to peasants.
(iii) The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.
(iv) The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. (V) Salt was something consumed by the rich and poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.
(vi) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production.
(vii) Mahatma Gandhi declared and revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule.

Q. 3. Why did the initial enthusiasm of the merchants and industrialists fade away during the later stage of Civil disobedience movement?
Ans. Enthusiasm of the merchants and Industrialists faded away during the later stage of CDM due to following reasons:
(i) The industrialists attacked the colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
(ii) They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
(iii) Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(iv)But after the failure of Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
(v)They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the congress.

Q.4. Describe the cultural process through which nationalism captured people's imagination.
Ans. (i) Nationalism spread when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together.
(ii) There were variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people's imagination.
(iii) Allegory of Indian nation-Bharat Mata helps create an image with which people can identify the nation.
(iv) Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism.
(v) It was essential to preserve folk traditions, folk tales in order to discover one's national identity and restore a sense of pride in one's part.
(vi) National Flag designed by Gandhiji as Swaraj flag, represented the Gandhian ideal of selfhelp. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
(vii) Reinterpretation of past also developed the interest of people in nationalist histories.


Solutions Unit-l   History: India and The Contemporary World -ll 

  1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 
  2. The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
  3. Nationalism in India
  4. The Making of a Global World
  5. The Age of Industrialisation
  6. Work, Life and Leisure
  7. Print Culture and the Modern World
  8. Novels, Society and History

Solutions Unit-l Geography: Contemporary India-ll

  1. Resource and Development
  2. Forest and Wildlife Resources
  3. Water Resources
  4. Agriculture
  5. Minerals and Energy Resources
  6. Manufacturing Industries
  7. Life Lines of National Economy

Solutions Unit-lll Political Science: Democratic Republics-ll

  1. Power Sharing
  2. Federalism
  3. Democracy and Diversity
  4. Gender, Religion and Caste
  5. Popular Struggles and Movements
  6. Political Parties
  7. Outcomes of Democracy
  8. Challenges of Democracy

Solutions Unit-lV Economics: Understanding Economics Development

  1. Development
  2. Sectors of the Indian Economy
  3. Money and Credit
  4. Globalisation and the Indian Economy
  5. Consumer Rights