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The NCERT Solutions enable students to quickly glance through the entire chapter at once which comes handy for last-minute studies. The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter  20 _ Sanitation and Solid waste Management  Notes, solutions have been designed considering the concept-based approach which allows students to answer precisely which is the most important aspect that needs to be noted for the board exams
RBSE Class 10 SST Chapter 20 _ Sanitation and Solid waste Management Notes

RBSE Class 10 SST Chapter 20 Notes PDF


Sanitation refers to public health conditions such as drinking clean water, sewage treatment, etc. All the effective tools and actions that help in keeping the environment clean come under sanitation.

The meaning of sanitation according to the World Health Organization are as follows:

For sanitation, people should themselves arrange for resources and measures to keep toilets and polluted water clean.

Common meaning of sanitation refers to those provisions, facilities and services, which make mankind perform a secure disposal of excreta, urine and rubbish, etc.

Many entrepreneurs are of the opinion that sanitation is an idea, a belief in its entire form and the following things are included in it:

Why is sanitation important for mankind?

Domestic and industrial waste polluted water, solid waste of human and animals and agricultural waste spread diseases. The work of disposal of all waste is called sanitation. Increasing the amount of rubbish or waste is becoming a serious problem for densely populated regions. Especially for children, youth and elders in weaker sections, who have less immunity and are suffering from diseases. These factors are the main causes of spread of diseases.

Unattended polluted water and additional waste of the environment provide harm to human health in various way such as_ 

  1. Drinking water turns impure and polluted. 
  2. food chains turn impure and polluted ex. fruits, vegetables and fish. 
  3. Bathing and entertainment activities in water bodies cause water sources impure and polluted.
  4. Spread and increase of flies and several other insects  which spread disease.

Types of sanitation are as follows:

Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS): 

CLTS is associated with the common and insensible process of easing and urinating performed by rural people in open areas. CLTS aims to lishten people about the subsidized schemes run to prevent rural people from easing and urinating in open areas. 

Dry Sanitation

Dry sanitation refers to additional efforts made for making dry toilets for easing and urinating. Washing hands is not its only objective. 

Ecological Sanitation: 

Ecological sanitation generally refers to intense inte-relationship between agricultural measures and cleanliness. In other words, ecological sanitation refers to secure recycling of additional resources. For this, emphasis is laid on nutritional food and decreasing the use of nonrenewable resources in growth of organic crops. 

Environmental Sanitation

Control of environmental factors which are associated with diseases comes in the sphere of environmental sanitation. Solid waste management, treatment of water and polluted water, industrial waste treatment and noise pollution control are sub components of this category. 

Improved and Unimproved Sanitation

It is associated with control on age old process of human easing and urinating on domestic level. Under this, cleanliness and provision of water is ensured. 


Sustainable Sanitation

The area of sustainable sanitation includes complete sanitation value chain. In this, on the basis of consumer's experience, methods of transport, treatment, reuse and disposal of waste. faeces and urine and polluted water are included, where by we protect environment and natural resources.

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBMG)

Since rural sanitation is a subject of state, but to boost the efforts of the state, the central government started the programme in 1986.

1. With a few modifications on 1 April 1999 it was named as TSC (Total Sanitation Campaign).Later it is known as NBC (Nirmal Bharat Campaign). Its aim is to convert rural India in this, with community satisfaction attitude and clean all rural families completely till 2022.

2. On 2nd October 2014, it got a new named as ‘Clean India Mission’ (Rural). Its objective is to achieve an India free from open defecation by providing toilet facility to all people in village penchants through proper waste management techniques till 2 October 2019.

Urban Infrastructure, Housing and Sanitation 

In order to provide good urban infrastructure housing and sanitation the centre government is allocating resources to the state government through various schemes.

 some of the major scheme are given below

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM 2005)_ Under this program assistance is provided to the urban poor for housing Development and skill development.

Basic Services To The Urban Poor (BSUP)_  This program runs teams associated with housing and revival of slums in cities.

Rajiv Awas Yojana-  Programme to provide right of property to slum dwellers of cities is being run.

Guidance for sanitation management

  1. Wordpress should be separated properly from  rubbish, walls, floor and ceiling should be kept clean.
  2. There should be a separate processing room for raw material production process room and packing room.
  3. plants of purified polluted water and other equipment to prevent and healthy conditions should be implemented.
  4. Floor, wall and ceiling should be cleaned using water proof substances.
  5. equipment to prevent the entry of rats, dust and harmful organisms should be fixed on entry gate and window outlets.
  6. while preparing and packing food items use of sanitized steel equipments should be mandatory
  7. thermometer should be pics at places where substances are cooled, re- cooled and heated
  8. Washing stands should be pics for washing and drying hands in restrooms.

Solid waste management process involves the following:

In cities, sanitation workers collect garbage from houses, hospitals and other places.

It is the duty of the urban bodies to take this garbage on waste disposal centers through trucks, tractor trolley and horse carts.

At waste disposal centers, garbage is distributed in different categories as per their origin, e.g. household waste, industrial waste, construction waste and waste of business centers.

This waste is separated according to the ingredients contained in; such as organic waste, inorganic waste, plastic bottles, metals, paper, battery, dangerous things – poisonous material, infection, inflammable material, explosive material, radioactive material, infection-causing material, etc.

Measures adopted for Solid Waste Management:

Waste reduction and reuse – 

Reduction and reuse of products are included in measures for waste disposal. In reduction, both the producers and consumers are asked to generate less waste. For example, less packaging, less use of bags, pouches and covers, etc, to use bags made of cloth or any other reusable material. Under the process of reuse, people are made aware to purchase reusable items. For example, instead of throwing off unwanted items such as cloth napkins, plastic goods, glass utensils, etc. 

Recycling of waste

Recycling refers to using waste and converting it into useful raw material and decreasing the amount of waste. 

There are three levels in the process of recycling: 

  1. Identifying recyclable substances and metals from collected waste and collecting them separately. 
  2. Making raw materials from collected substances or metals. 
  3. Making new items from raw material.

Waste collection- 

Special waste and recyclable waste should be collected by workers appointed by local corporations in cities twice in a week. Wastes which are the breeding grounds of houseflies, or wastes which emit foul, the wastes spread in the open should be collected and removed as soon as possible.

Treatment and disposal – 

Technique of waste management performs research to modify management in such form so that the quantity of waste produced becomes less and waste disposal becomes easy. Processes of waste management are implemented on the basis of quantity, type and category of waste. For example waste- disposal at high temperature, by burying inside the ground or by adopting organic process. 


Incineration is a major common thermal process. Waste burns in presence of oxygen. After incineration, waste transforms into carbon dioxide, water, steam and ash. This process forms a source for energy production. It is used to provide heat for electricity production. Incineration is an additional process of providing heat. Cost of transportation decreases due to this. Production of methane- a greenhouse gas- is decreased through this process.

Gasification and Pyrolysis- 

Gasification and Pyrolysis both are thermal processes. Under these processes, elements of waste are segregated at high temperature. In Gasification, waste is burnt in regions with less oxygen availability and in Pyrolysis waste is burned in the absence of oxygen. This technique is used in areas of less or no oxygen availability. Pyrolysis liquid is formed by a mixture of combustible and non combustible gases.

Following are the advantages of solid waste management:

  1. Fire accidents, spread of rats, disease- causing pests or germs and stray animals can be kept under control.
  2. Disease will be kept under control, improvement in public health, working capacity will increase, less load of patients in hospitals, etc.
  3. Extraction of low toxic materials, prevention of water pollution.
  4. Cheap and best botanical fertilizer will be obtained, agriculture capacity and production will increase.
  5. Cheap energy is obtained for production of electricity.
  6. Many items can be produced from recycled raw materials.
  7. Increase in employment opportunities.
  8. Costly metals can be recovered from garbage.

objectives of solid waste management programme?

Solid waste management refers to treatment of solid waste without any side effect on environment and health, disposal, reuse, recycle and arrangement of power generating processes. The Central Government has made strict rules on solid waste management. 

In new rules, it is the duty of the state:

  1. To provide training of solid waste management in local sectors of rural and urban regions
  2. To make arrangement of suggestions and resources
  3. To provide benefits of different works related to solid waste management and its uses.