In this chapter RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Central Government are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Central Government Notes, According, based on new syllabus
RBSE Class 10 SST Chapter 6 Central Government Notes New Syllabus

RBSE Class 10 SST Chapter 6 Central Government Notes New Syllabus

GOVERNMENT

The state is an abstract concept which is an invisible institution. The organisation which gives it a tangible / concrete shape is called the government. The overall will of the state is determined, expressed and implemented by the government


According to Garner _

Government is such an agency or machine, through which a state's policies are determined, normal tissues are formalized and public welfare is developed.


Organs of Government
The three main organs of the government are:
  • legislative
  • executive and 
  • judiciary

Legislative:

Legislative is the first organ of government. In India, legislature is formed at two levels,

(a) Union Legislature and

(b) State Legislature.

According to the article 79 of Indian, there is a parliament in the Indian Union which is formed jointly by the president and the two houses namely - the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.


Structure or Organization of Lok Sabha: 

The first or lower house of the Parliament is the Lok Sabha. This is also called the popular house because its members are directly elected by people.


Number of Members

The maximum number of members of Lok Sabha can be 552. Up to 530 members shall be elected from the states, up to 20 members shall be elected from the Union Territories, and remaining 2 members are from Anglo-Indian Community, shall be nominated by the President.


Election

The members of Lok Sabha are directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise.


Eligibility for Members:


  1. The person should be a citizen of India.

  2. His/her age should be 25 years or more.

  3. The person should not hold any post of benefit under Union Government or State Government.

  4. The person has not been declared as mentally disabled by any court and is not bankrupt.


Tenure

The tenure of a member of Lok Sabha is 5 years, but it can be dissolved before completion of its tenure.


Session/ Meeting

Meetings of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are called and postponed only by the president. The interval between two respective meetings of the Lok Sabha should not be more than six months.


Officials of Lok Sabha: Speaker and Deputy Speaker: 

Speaker is the chairman and the deputy speaker is the deputy chairman. They are elected by the members of the house. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker can be removed from their post if a proposal for this is passed by majority of the members.

According to the constitution, the speaker and the Deputy Speaker is entitled to get allowances as fixed by the parliament.


Powers/function and Duties of Speaker


  1. The Speaker presides over all meetings of Lok Sabha. 

  2. He has to ensure peace and discipline inside the house.

  3. The Speaker decides all the programmers and proceedings of Lok Sabha.

  4. He is the ex-office chairman of some of the Parliamentary Committees. 

  5. He appoints the chairpersons of Select Committees and such committees work under his instruction.

  6. Speaker decides if a particular bill is money bill or not.

  7. All correspondence between the President and the Parliament are done by him.


Power/Rights and Duties of the Lok Sabha

  1. Judicial Powers 

According to the constitution, the Indian parliament can form laws on the subject of the Union list and the State list.

Simple non-financial bill and constitutional amendment bills, can be presented in the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha - any of these two houses and only after being passed from both of the houses.


  1. Financial Power

The Constitution has provided financial powers only to the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha has just a subsidiary role in it.


  1. Powers related to constitutional amendments

The Lok Sabha has the right to make amendments in the Constitution by taking advice from the Rajya Sabha. 

According to section 368 of the constitution, the work of making amendments in most of the parts of the Constitution is done by the Parliament alone.


  1. Functions in the form of the election commission

The Lok Sabha also functions in the form of an election commission. According to section 54, the members of the Lok Sabha along with the members of the state legislatures, jointly elect the president.


Structure and Organization of Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha is the second and Upper House of the Parliament. It has less power compared to Lok Sabha, but has its own importance and utility.


Number of members and election process

Members of Rajya Sabha can be up to 250 but at present it is only 245. Out of them, 12 members are nominated by the President. Remaining members are elected by the members of legislative assemblies.


Eligibility for Members:

The eligibility criteria for membership of Rajya Sabha are almost the same as for membership of Lok Sabha. The only difference is, unlike Lok Sabha, the minimum age to be a Rajya Sabha member is 30 years or more.


Tenure:

Rajya Sabha is a permanent house which is never dissolved. The tenure of members is 6 years. One third members of Rajya Sabha retire after every two years.


Officials of Rajya Sabha:

There are two main officials of Rajya Sabha,  Chairman and Deputy Chairman. The Vice President of India is the ex-office chairman of Rajya Sabha. His tenure is five years. Any member of the Rajya Sabha is elected as Deputy Chairman by members of the Rajya Sabha. The tenure of Deputy Chairman is 6 years.


Functions and the powers of Rajya Sabha


  1. Financial power

According to the constitution money bills are first introduced in the Lok Sabha. after being accepted in the Lok Sabha the money bill will be sent to the Rajya Sabha, who will have to decide upon the bill within a period of 14 days.


  1. Power of making amendments in the constitution

in context of making amendments in the constitution the rajya Sabha have equal powers as the Lok Sabha in case of discrepancy/deviation between both the houses regarding a resolution of constitutional amendment, the constitutional amendment resolution will not be passed.


  1. Executive Powers

In the parliamentary system, the Council of Ministers is only answerable to the popular house of the Parliament. Hence, the Council of Ministers is only answerable to the Lok Sabha and not to the Rajya Sabha.

  1. Miscellaneous Powers

Apart from the above mentioned powers the Rajya Sabha has several other powers also which is uses jointly along with the Lok Sabha these powers and functions are as given below _

Elected members of the Rajya Sabha participate in the election of the president.

Members of the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha jointly elect the vice president.

Members of the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha jointly impeach the president, judge of the supreme court and some other officers.

The Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha jointly pass a motion/resolution (प्रस्ताव) to majority and remove the Vice President from his office.


Special Privilegs 

the Rajya Sabha has two such powers which have not been provided to the Lok Sabha and which are used by the Rajya Sabha only.


  1. According to Article 249, the Rajya Sabha can make any subject under State List into a subject of national importance by two-thirds majority of the members who are present and who are participating in voting.


  1. According to Article 249, only Rajya Sabha has the right to give power of initiating a new All India Service by passing the proposal by two-thirds majority.


Power and function of the Parliament.

The constitution has provided ample powers to the Parliament and the major power of the Parliament are listed below-


Judicial power

The most important function of the Parliament is formation of law for the nation's welfare.


Power of making amendments in the constitution

The  Parliament has important power regarding amendments in the constitution.

According to the constitution any regulations regarding amendments in the constitution can be presented only in the Parliament and not in any state legislature. both the houses of Parliament perform the function of making amendment in the constitution.


Financial power

Being the representative of the people, the Parliament has full control upon national wealth and until the finance minister doesn't get the annual budget passed by the Parliament, till that time no work of income or expenditure can be done.


Budget- account of national income and expenditure


Power associated with elections

Article 54 provides the Parliament various powers related with election. The elected members of Parliament are the part of the election commission formed for the election of the president.

According to the article 66 the members of both of the houses of Parliament elect the vice president.


Miscellaneous/other Powers

Members of both the houses of the Parliament can remove the president from his office by the process of impeachment.

Similarly, the members of both the houses can remove the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court or any of the High Courts; on the basis of inefficiency or corruption.

To implement an emergency done by the president it is necessary to take permission of both the houses of the Parliament within one month of such declaration. After 6 months if it is necessary to implement it again for the next 6 month permission of both the houses is required.


President

According to Article 52 of Indian constitution, there is a President in India.

The Union Executive shall comprise President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers and the Chief Justice of India. The President is the formal head of the executive while the Prime Minister (with his Council of Ministers) is the actual head of the executive.


Qualification / Eligibility required for the president of India-


  1. He should be a citizen of India.

  2. He should have completed the age of 35 years.

  3. He should have the qualification to be elected as a member of the Lok Sabha. The president cannot be a member of any house of the Indian Parliament or state legislature.

  4. The person should not hold any post of profit under any level of government or under any other organization.


Election of the President


The President of India is elected by Indirect Election or Single Transferable Vote system.


Indirect Election -

The Lok Sabha functions in the form of an election commission. According to section 54, the members of the Lok Sabha along with the members of the state legislatures, jointly elect the president.


Single Transferable Vote system.

In this election voting is done through a secret ballot / poll and to become successful in this election the candidate has to obtain a ''minimum quota''.

The following formula is applied to determine this "minimum quote".

RBSE Class 10 SST Chapter 6 Central Government Notes New Syllabus

Procedure of removal from office (Impeachment)

Each house of the Indian Parliament has the right to impeach the president.

to initiate the process of impeachment signature of one third members of the Parliament is required.

Once the motion is presented in the house, the house will discuss it after 14 days.

If the impeachment motion gets passed with two-third majority of the members, then motion will be sent to the second house.

The second house will either investigate impeachment clauses or will appoint a special committee to do so.

If the allegations against the president are proved and the second house also  accepts the impeachment motion by two-third majority, then the president is considered to be removed from his office.


Powers and Functions of the President

The powers of the president can be divided into two categories: Normal Power and Emergency Powers.


Normal Power


  1. Executive or Administrative Powers

According to the article 53 of Indian Constitution, "the power of the Union Executive will be in hands of the president and he will use this power either himself or through his representative".


Appointment and removal of important officers

The President appoints many important officials of Indian Union, ex. ministers (on advice of the Prime Minister), governors of states, Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Comptroller & Auditor General, Chairman of UPSC, ambassadors to other countries, etc.


Power associated with functioning of the government

The President can call the joint meeting of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, appoint the officers and employees for the supreme court and make laws related to the power of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG -Girish Chandra Murmu) of India.


Powers in Military Affairs:

The President is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces, but he can exercise this right only according to the law. The President can neither announce a war nor utilize the military without the assent of the Parliament


  1. Legislative Powers

The president is the constitutional head of the Indian Union executive in this context the president has the following judicial powers -


Administration of legislative

The president can dissolve the Lok Sabha even before completion of its tenure.

The Lok Sabha has been dissolved for 9 times up till now.

Common policies of the government are declared through the president's speech.


Power to nominate the members

The president had the power to nominate 12 members of the Rajya Sabha who have been experts in any field including literature, science, art and sports.

He nominates 2 Anglo-Indian members in the Lok Sabha.


Power to reject a motion

Once a bill is passed by the Parliament it needs to be assented by the President to become a law. The President can return the normal bills with some suggestions for a review to the Parliament. If the bill is passed by the Parliament either with amendment or without amendment, then the President has to give his assent.


  1. Financial Powers

The President will make for presentation of the Budget of a financial year at the beginning of that year in both houses of the Parliament.


Emergency Powers


Process of Declaration

According to Article 352, the President can announce emergency if he feels about fear of war, external attack, internal disturbance in the whole country or in any part of the country. 

The announcement can be enforced for two months even without approval of the Parliament. After the 44th Amendment in the Constitution, following are the clauses of emergency:


  • First: Emergency can only be announced in case of war, external attack or armed revolt. Emergency cannot be announced only in the name of internal disturbance.


  • Second: The President can only announce emergency under Article 352, when the Council of Ministers gives a written advice to him.


  • Third: Within a month the announcement needs to be ratified by the Parliament by two-thirds majority of members. To continue the emergency for further duration, it has to be ratified by the Parliament after every six months.


  • Fourth: Emergency can be ended by a simple majority of members of Lok Sabha.


Declaration of emergency in case of Constitutional breakdown in a state

According to Article 356, the President can announce emergency in states under following conditions:


  • On the recommendation of the Governor.

  • A situation has come under which it is impossible to continue the governance in that state as per the provisions of the Constitution.


Announcement of Financial Emergency

According to Article 360, the President can announce financial emergency if he is convinced that situation has become so grim that it presents a danger to financial stability of India.


Prime Minister


Appointment of Prime Minister:

According to the fundamental principles of parliamentary system, the President is bound to appoint the leader of the majority party in Lok Sabha as Prime Minister.

The  Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President.


Functions and Powers of Prime Minister:

  1. Formation of Council of Ministers

  2. Allocation and changes of Minister’s Portfolios

  3. Conduction of Working of Council of Ministers

  4. Coordination among different departments of government

  5. Leader of Lok Sabha

  6. Channel between President and Council of Ministers

  7. Appointments for various posts


Eligibility/Qualification for Judges:

Judges of the Supreme Court should fulfill following eligibility criteria.
  • The person should be a citizen of India.
  • The person should have worked for at least five years as a judge in any High Court or in two or more courts. OR The person should have worked as an advocate in any High Court or in other courts continuously for 10 years.